Sambucus nigra lectin (EBL II/SNA II) isaffinity purified from elderberry bark. This lectin is a glycoprotein containing 7.8% carbohydrate and is not blood group specific. It is composed of two subunits and has a molecular weight of 140,000. EBL II has a specificity for carbohydrates containing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues.The blood group A-active trisaccharide containing L-fucosyl group linked Î±1-2 to galactose is 10-fold lesser as an inhibitor than the parent oligosaccharide (GalNAc Î±1-3Gal), which suggests steric hindrance to binding by the Î±-L-fucosyl group and explains the failure of the lectin to exhibit blood group A specificity.EBL II induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at low concentrations (nM) order, leading to typical symptoms of cell death in sensitive cells. This effect seems dependent on the carbohydrate binding B-chain.Texas Red is a red-fluorescent dye and when bound to Sambucus nigra Lectin (SNA/EBL II) can show the binding pattern of this lectin in cellular imaging applications. There is very little overlap between the emission spectra of Texas Red and FITC making this combination ideal for dual-labeling experiments. Rhodamine dyes, such as Texas Red, are more photostable and less sensitive to pH change when compared to other dyes such as fluorescein.