Psophocarpus tetragonolobus lectin (PTL II, psophocarpin B1, a storage protein with chymotrypsin inhibitory activity), is isolated from winged bean seeds and purified by fractionation. The seed contains two lectins in which PTL II is the acidic of the two. This lectin agglutinates trypsinized and desialized erythrocytes of all three blood group types (A, B, and O). Nonpolar interactions play an important role in stabilization of the lectin-sugar complex. Projection of α1,3 linked Gal/GalNAc leads to steric hindrance and prevents the binding of blood group A and B reactive sugars.The unique specificity of PTL II makes it to be useful in isolation and characterization of terminally monofucosylated H-reactive oligosaccharides from those that are difucosylated or internally fucosylated.
Texas Red is a red-fluorescent dye and when bound to Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Lectin (PTL/PTA II) can show the binding pattern of this lectin in cellular imaging applications. There is very little overlap between the emission spectra of Texas Red and FITC making this combination ideal for dual-labeling experiments. Rhodamine dyes, such as Texas Red, are more photostable and less sensitive to pH change when compared to other dyes such as fluorescein.