Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a lectin that is affinity purified from Triticum vulgaris and non-enzymatically binds to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and sialic acid residues of glycoproteins and glycolipids. This lectin protects Triticum vulgaris from insects, yeast and bacteria. WGA consists of two subunits and has a molecular weight of 36 kDa. It is an acidic protein and has mitogenic activity toward lymphocytes. It agglutinates erythrocytes and most types of malignant cells.
Similar to insulin, WGA enhances the rate of glucose oxidation in isolated fat cells and is used for isolation and fractionation of insulin receptors. A recent time-of-addition study made it evident that WGA inhibits infection with SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting replication when the lectin is incubated with the virus and added to cells during infection. The data from the same study indicated the mode of action is an interaction between WGA and the viral envelope, causing neutralization of the virus. It is possible this occurs via the highly glycosylated spike proteins. WGA has been used in oral squamous cell carcinoma staining techniques to test the degree of cell cohesion. It has been shown to inhibit melanoma cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines is characteristic of WGA. The effects of its binding have been studied in a plethora of cancers including but not limited to hepatoma, choriocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, and some pancreatic cancers.
When bound to Cy5, the binding pattern of WGA in cellular imaging and flow cytometry is evident. The excitation wavelength required for Cy5 to fluoresce is high enough to avoid overlap with most other fluorochromes, making it useful for dual-labeling experiments. Because of this high excitation, there is typically less background from autofluorescence of biological specimens.
bioWORLD's products are supplied for LABORATORY RESEARCH USE ONLY. The product may not be used as a drug, agricultural or pesticidal product, food additive or as a household chemical
Source: Triticum vulgaris (Wheat germ)
Activity: 10 µg/ml will agglutinate human erythrocytes nonspecifically.
Carbohydrate Specificity: N-Acetylglucosamine
Inhibitory Carbohydrate: Chitin hydrolysate or 500 mM N-Acetylglucosamine
Mitogenic Activity: Yes
Divalent Ions Required: None
- Conjugation: Cy5
- Excitation: Maximum at 650 nm
- Emission: Maximum at 670 nm
Storage and Stability:
Store frozen at -20°C in amber vials or covered with foil in appropriate aliquot sizes. Avoid freeze thaw cycles. Can be stored at 2-8°C for short term use.